The bite of cobra is not easy to locate as it is almost symptom less in initial stage of bite, but further prognosis is very fatal resulting in respiratory failure causing death of the victim.
Cobra is very dreadful and horrible serpent of Indian origin. It is worshiped in India and has great religious association in Indian culture and civilization. One of the trinity devta lords Shiva is associated with serpents .you will generally see in mythological pictures serpent naja hanging around the neck of lord Shiva. The cobra is a deadly venomous snake. It ranks with Crotalus cas in deadlypoison. For some weak minded and nervous people the mention of its name is enough to cause shivering in their body. Its poison is very deadly .The cobra is a means of employment for snake charmers. They earn their livelihood by making show of the snakes to the street gatherings. For small children it is great fun game to see the snake raising its hood on the harping tunes. When encountered by people, the cobras usually try to escape from the scence. But occasionally defend them boldly and may appear aggressive and offensive. Most of these snakes elevate the head and spread the neck as a threat gesture to make the people run from them. Its most recognizable physical characteristic is its hood which it can wave in the air like a hand. This is around four inch section area of the neck which it can flatten out to make seem larger. In addition to its deadly bite, the spitting cobra can spray deadly venom into its victim’s eyes. This is a rare defending mechanism of cobra. A cobra will only attack and bite you if it feels that it has been threatened or provoked. Not all bites may be venomous; sometimes the snake makes blank strikes also. Cobra bites are fatal in ten percent of human cases causing death of the concerned persons.
The bite of cobra does not produce any haemorrhage or bleeding from the bitten site like other venomous snakes: Lachesis and Crotalus. Man is generally bitten by cobra on extremities. If one has not seen the biting of cobra with his own eyes than it is very difficult to identify the bite as its outer manifestations are very rare and that too are not so prominent and distinct. The victims of the cobra bite have little sign of external injury. Sometimes a scratch and puncture is the only sign when the fangs of snake have done the havoc. The tissue
Brain and nervous system
Cobras deliver significant amounts of deadly neurotoxic venom to its victim resulting in necrosis and respiratory collapse. The immediate target of serpent poison of cobra is the brain and nervous system. The venom of cobra is neurotoxin in nature it starts paralyzing the motor nerves of limbs especially legs. The venom of cobra mainly affects the nervous system .after its initial manifestation, the poison of cobra than starts moving upwards by way of nerves.. Reaching the brain it produces the state of intoxication like alcohol. But contrary to alcohol it does not stimulate and excites the brain rather it stupefies it like the venom of conium. The victim starts stumbling with a staggering gait. Slowly the victim looses the nervous control of his limbs. A cataleptic state of limbs is produced. He can not move the limbs at his own will or volition now. The motor activity of limbs is totally lost. The victim patient is bereft of speech, swallowing and the control over the movements of his lips. The saliva is ejected in large quantities. The respiration becomes slower and slower and in the end it cases or stops causing death of the person. The affinity of naja for medulla oblongata and cerebellum portion of brain is well marked. Nervous phenomena predominate in naja over the other serpent poisons. It primarily acts on the nervous tissues especially on respiratory nerves, pneumo gastric nerves, and glosso pharyngeal nerves. The last nerve is responsible for causing choking and suffocation in naja. The collapse stage is very marked with pulselessness, cold skin and cold perspiration. The pulse is lowered as low as twenty or almost pulse less, with dyspnoea and difficult breathing. The victim dies of asphyxia and respiratory failure.
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